Sightline Glossary

Access, learn and discover all terms related to big data visualization, predictive analytics and machine learning.  

What is MQTT?

MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) is a messaging protocol that establishes a definitive standard for machine-to-machine (m2m) communications in low-bandwidth environments. The protocol was created in 1999 by Andy Stanford of IBM and Arlen Nipper of Eurotech to connect oil pipeline…

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What is Root Cause Analysis?

Root cause analysis (RCA) is a process for identifying any underlying causes of an issue and implementing solutions that treat the problem at the root level, or the core cause of the incident. These root causes can include physical, human, or organizational errors. This helps…

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What is Predictive Analytics?

Predictive analytics is the process of using both historical and current data to make projections about what could happen in the future. This process can be used to improve efficiency and mitigate risks. Predictive analytics draws on multiple techniques to make these forecasts…

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What is a Histogram?

Similar to bar charts, histograms are visual interpretations of numerical data that show the number of data points that fall within a defined range of values, or “bins.” Unlike bar charts, however, histograms don’t have any gaps between the bars. The anatomy of a histogram can…

Read More >

What is Data Analytics?

Many organizations collect large amounts of data in raw form. However, raw data doesn’t provide much insight. Data analytics is the science of analyzing this raw data to extract actionable and valuable information, which can drive better business outcomes. The process of data…

Read More >

What is an Operational Performance Evaluation?

An operational performance evaluation or review is a productivity procedure that assesses the efficiency a company has throughout its operational processes. The end goal is to eliminate wasteful practices and improve overall efficiencies to increase production and profit…

Read More >

What is MQTT Protocol?

MQTT, or MQ Telemetry Transport, protocol is the de-jure standard for the Internet of Things (IoT) messaging. Regulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and OASIS, MQTT protocol offers a secure, efficient, and scalable method of connecting constrained…

Read More >

What is IIoT?

IIoT is an acronym for the Industrial Internet of Things. IIoT is the industrial-sector subset of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is a vast network of intelligent computers, devices, applications, and smartphones that are all connected to the internet. The Industrial Internet…

Read More >

What is IoT?

IoT, which stands for the Internet of Things, refers to the seven billion+ physical devices—“things”—that are connected to the internet. IoT encompasses all physical objects that can be connected to the internet to communicate and control information, including smartphones…

Read More >

What is Industry 4.0?

Today’s manufacturers are integrating advanced technologies, including machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), analytics, and the Internet of Things (IoT) into their production processes to boost efficiency. This pivot to advanced technology and digitization is known…

Read More >

What are MQTT Wildcards?

MQTT, or MQ Telemetry Transport, is a protocol for machine-to-machine (m2m) and Internet of Things (IoT) communications. MQTT enables devices that are subscribed to a particular topic to receive messages from devices that publish communications on that subject. As such, MQTT…

Read More >

What is Aquaculture?

By 2030, 62% of all seafood made for human consumption will come from aquaculture. Fish farming, or aquaculture, is the controlled cultivation of breeding, nurturing, and harvesting aquatic organisms, including fish, algae, and shellfish. Most of the seafood you buy at your local…

Read More >

What is a Recirculating System?

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) filters water from fish—or shellfish—tanks so it can be reused within the same tank. This vastly decreases the need for fresh water while promoting a healthy environment for aquatic organisms. A RAS treatment process is needed to maintain…

Read More >

What is a Net Pen?

Aquaculture farms use four different systems to cultivate fish, including raceways, recirculating systems, ponds, and net pens. A net pen is a mesh enclosure with a rigid frame at the top used to confine shellfish or fish. These pens are typically found in freshwater lakes…

Read More >

What is an Aquaculture Pond?

An aquaculture pond, also referred to as pond culture, is a production method where fish and shellfish are reared in semi- or fully-enclosed bodies of water. The most commonly used aquaculture method, pond culture, involves raising fish in ponds until they reach market size…

Read More >

What is OPC UA?

OPC UA stands for Open Platform Communications United Architecture and is a data exchange standard for machine-to-machine or industrial communication. Developed by the OPC Foundation, an industry association that develops and maintains standards for open connectivity of…

Read More >

What is Zero Trust Security?

Zero Trust is a cybersecurity strategy that organizations implement in their cloud and mobile ecosystem that, by default, does not trust any application or user. All users, both in and outside of the enterprise’s network, must be authorized, authenticated, and continuously…

Read More >

What is a Scatter Chart?

A scatter chart, also referred to as a scatter plot, is a mathematical diagram that uses points to represent the relationship between two different variables for a set of data. If the dots are coded by shape, size, or color, one additional variable can be used in the chart…

Read More >

What Does OEE Mean to You?

OEE is short for Overall Equipment Effectiveness and is the gold standard for evaluating manufacturing productivity. To put it simply, OEE reveals the amount of manufacturing time that is productive. If an organization has a 100% OEE score, it means that it is effectively…

Read More >

What is a Digital Twin?

A digital twin is a real-time digital representation of a physical process, system, or object. It can be a virtual replica of a real-world object, including an airplane, building, or entire city. In essence, a digital twin is a computer program that utilizes real-world data…

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What is a Specific Growth Rate?
Specific growth rate (SGR) is a term used in the aquaculture industry to measure the estimated percentage increase in fish weight per day. The specific growth rate is calculated as: SGR=(Ln(Wt)-Ln(W0))*100/t(d)

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What is Feed Conversion Rate?

In aquaculture, feed conversion rate (FCR), or feed conversion ratio, is the measure of how effectively an aquatic organism converts feed into the desired body mass. FCR is determined by dividing the weight of the feed fed to the animals by the live weight gained over several…

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What is a Specific Feeding Rate?
Specific feeding rate (SFR) is a metric used by aquaculture farms to determine the amount of food eaten per day. It is represented as a percentage of a fish’s body weight.

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What is Thermal Growth Coefficient Biomass?

The temperature of the environment plays a significant role in the metabolism and growth of fish at aquaculture farms. Thermal growth coefficient biomass is the measure of daily fish growth over a certain period of time that takes environmental temperatures into account…

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What is Average Daily Gain?

Average daily gain (ADG) is a formula used by aquaculture farms to determine the average amount of weight a fish will gain each day during their feeding period. ADG is calculated by taking the amount of weight a fish has gained since its last weight and dividing that by the…

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What is Average Daily Gain?

Average daily gain (ADG) is a formula used by aquaculture farms to determine the average amount of weight a fish will gain each day during their feeding period. ADG is calculated by taking the amount of weight a fish has gained since its last weight and dividing that by the number of days since that last weight.

ADG is calculated as:

AGG = body weight gain (g) / number of days

What is Thermal Growth Coefficient Biomass?

The temperature of the environment plays a significant role in the metabolism and growth of fish at aquaculture farms. Thermal growth coefficient biomass is the measure of daily fish growth over a certain period of time that takes environmental temperatures into account. It is a flexible and easy-to-understand indicator used to predict fish production and growth.

The formula for thermal growth coefficient (TGC) is:

1,000 × [(W2(1/3) – W1(1/3) ) / ºD ]

 W2 = weight, in grams, at the end of the period

 W1 = weight, in grams, at the beginning of the period

 t = period, expressed in number of days

 ºD = Degree-days, the total of daily temperatures in °C between t1 and t2 (or the duration in days x average temperature during the period)

What is a Specific Feeding Rate?

Specific feeding rate (SFR) is a metric used by aquaculture farms to determine the amount of food eaten per day. It is represented as a percentage of a fish’s body weight. 

What is Feed Conversion Rate?

In aquaculture, feed conversion rate (FCR), or feed conversion ratio, is the measure of how effectively an aquatic organism converts feed into the desired body mass. FCR is determined by dividing the weight of the feed fed to the animals by the live weight gained over several intervals (feed/gain). Thus, FCR is the mass of the input divided by the output.

Feed conversion rates are one of the most important metrics for determining profitability. It helps fish farmers know how much feed will be required in the growth cycle of their stock, allowing them to make better decisions to maximize the farm’s profitability.

What is a Specific Growth Rate?

Specific growth rate (SGR) is a term used in the aquaculture industry to measure the estimated percentage increase in fish weight per day.

The specific growth rate is calculated as:

SGR=(Ln(Wt)-Ln(W0))*100/t(d)

 W0: The weight, in grams, at the start of the period

 Wt: The weight at the end of the period

 T[d]: The period, represented in days

 Ln: The natural logarithm, or the power in which a number must be raised to produce some other number

What is a Digital Twin?

A digital twin is a real-time digital representation of a physical process, system, or object. It can be a virtual replica of a real-world object, including an airplane, building, or entire city. In essence, a digital twin is a computer program that utilizes real-world data to develop simulations that can forecast how a process or product will perform. These programs typically integrate artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and analytics to improve output. The first digital twin was created by NASA in 2010 in an attempt to enhance the physical-model simulation of a spacecraft.

There are three general subtypes of digital twins, including :

 Digital twin prototypes (DTP): The design, examination, and processes that realize a physical product

 Digital twin instance (DTI): The digital twin of a physical product’s individual instances after it is manufactured

 Digital twin aggregate (DTA): An aggregation of DTIs whose information and data can be used for cross-examining the product

Organizations can use digital twins to improve technological strategies, mitigate any potential failures in physical objects, and test services and processes.

What Does OEE Mean to You?

OEE is short for Overall Equipment Effectiveness and is the gold standard for evaluating manufacturing productivity. To put it simply, OEE reveals the amount of manufacturing time that is productive. If an organization has a 100% OEE score, it means that it is effectively manufacturing good parts, with no stop time, as swiftly as possible.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness is important to organizations because it allows them to monitor their underlying losses and identify opportunities for improvement in their manufacturing process. OEE is among the best metrics for measuring progress, pinpointing losses, and enhancing the efficiency of manufacturing equipment.

What is a Scatter Chart?

A scatter chart, also referred to as a scatter plot, is a mathematical diagram that uses points to represent the relationship between two different variables for a set of data. If the dots are coded by shape, size, or color, one additional variable can be used in the chart. The position of each point on the chart’s vertical and horizontal axis shows values for a data point. Scatter charts help viewers easily understand and identify a trend or relationship, which would have been almost impossible to see otherwise.

Scatter charts can also be used to:

 Identify correlational relationships

 Identify patterns in data

Scatter plots should not be used when the data is not related at all or for extremely large amounts of data.

What is Zero Trust Security?

Zero Trust is a cybersecurity strategy that organizations implement in their cloud and mobile ecosystem that, by default, does not trust any application or user. All users, both in and outside of the enterprise’s network, must be authorized, authenticated, and continuously validated before being granted access to the company’s sensitive data and applications.

A Zero Trust framework abides by the adage, “Never trust and always verify.” This guiding principle, originally coined by John Kindervag of Forrest Research, has been closely followed by countless organizations and systems ever since.

In a Zero Trust architecture, an organization maintains complete control and visibility over its system’s traffic and users. The strategy helps enterprises overcome the unique, modern challenges of hybrid cloud environments, remote workers, and cybersecurity threats, including ransomware.  

What is OPC UA?

OPC UA stands for Open Platform Communications United Architecture and is a data exchange standard for machine-to-machine or industrial communication. Developed by the OPC Foundation, an industry association that develops and maintains standards for open connectivity of industrial automation technologies, OPC UA is one of the most essential communication standards for the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industry 4.0. OPC UA ensures access to devices, machines, and technology systems in the industrial industry is standardized, allowing for manufacturer-independent and interchangeable data exchange.

What is an Aquaculture Pond?

An aquaculture pond, also referred to as pond culture, is a production method where fish and shellfish are reared in semi- or fully-enclosed bodies of water. The most commonly used aquaculture method, pond culture, involves raising fish in ponds until they reach market size. At that time, the fish are caught with large nets or by draining the water.

There are two primary types of aquaculture ponds, including watershed and levee ponds. Watershed ponds source water from watershed runoffs. They are a more affordable way to rear fish since there is a continuous supply of free water. Levee pond systems are set up in flat land areas where there are inadequate amounts of water to keep the ponds full. Groundwater will generally be used.

What is a Net Pen?

Aquaculture farms use four different systems to cultivate fish, including raceways, recirculating systems, ponds, and net pens. A net pen is a mesh enclosure with a rigid frame at the top used to confine shellfish or fish. These pens are typically found in freshwater lakes or offshore, coastal areas.

Net pens make it easier to feed, monitor, and harvest fish. However, since water can freely flow between the enclosed area and surrounding water resources, it can increase the risks of disease, parasites, chemicals, waste, and predators.

What is a Recirculating System?

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) filters water from fish—or shellfish—tanks so it can be reused within the same tank. This vastly decreases the need for fresh water while promoting a healthy environment for aquatic organisms.

A RAS treatment process is needed to maintain water quality inside the tank. After removing the water from the tank, it is treated for solids. The water will then enter a biofilter to remove ammonia before oxygenation, or injecting pure oxygen to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). The water is then cooled or heated according to the requirements of the fish and finally sterilized to prevent disease and bacteria outbreaks. All steps of the process must be completed to optimize fish health and growth.

Recirculating aquaculture systems reduce water waste, provide fish farms with more flexibility, and allow the environmental conditions to be closely monitored for maximized production efficiency

What is Aquaculture?

By 2030, 62% of all seafood made for human consumption will come from aquaculture. Fish farming, or aquaculture, is the controlled cultivation of breeding, nurturing, and harvesting aquatic organisms, including fish, algae, and shellfish. Most of the seafood you buy at your local supermarket likely comes from an aquafarm.

There are two kinds of aquaculture, including freshwater and marine. The latter can take place in ponds, the ocean, or tanks. Freshwater aquaculture is mainly used to produce trout or catfish and takes place in manmade systems.

Aquaculture is important because it supports a more sustainable planet. Some of the benefits of aquaculture are:

 Alleviate food insecurities by producing more fish

 Creates employment opportunities

 Prevents overfishing

 Preserves cultural heritage

What are MQTT Wildcards?

MQTT, or MQ Telemetry Transport, is a protocol for machine-to-machine (m2m) and Internet of Things (IoT) communications.

MQTT enables devices that are subscribed to a particular topic to receive messages from devices that publish communications on that subject. As such, MQTT publishers and subscribers are bookends of a communication. A publisher is a MQTT client who sends a message while the subscriber is the client receiving the communications. Despite this, the two clients don’t directly communicate with each other and aren’t even aware of the other’s existence.

A MQTT client can subscribe to one or more topic filters. They can subscribe to specific topics (e.g. vegetables/broccoli/green) to receive messages from them. MQTT wildcards, on the other hand, allow clients to subscribe their devices to multiple topics simultaneously.

There are two different types of MQTT wildcards, including:

 Single level (+): A single-level wildcard matches any name to a particular topic level. For instance, a subscription to a topic vegetables/+/green selects the topics vegetables/broccoli/green and vegetables/lima beans/green. The (+) sign will match a single level of a topic.

 Multiple level (#): This kind of MQTT wildcard covers an array of topic levels. The (#) symbol represents the multi-level wildcard in the topic and must be placed as the last character in the topic and followed by a forward slash (/). When a client subscribes to a topic with a multiple-level wildcard, they will receive all communications of a topic that begins with the pattern before the (#) sign.

What is Industry 4.0?

Today’s manufacturers are integrating advanced technologies, including machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), analytics, and the Internet of Things (IoT) into their production processes to boost efficiency. This pivot to advanced technology and digitization is known as Industry 4.0, or the fourth manufacturing revolution.

A precursor to Industry 3.0, when computers were introduced to the manufacturing space, Industry 4.0 sees connected computers and devices, such as robotics and advanced sensors, communicating with each other to enhance manufacturing productivity and reduce waste. These connected devices, known as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), are making smart factories a reality.

 Manufacturing companies that adopt an Industry 4.0 model can benefit by:

 Getting an edge over their competition

 Attracting and retaining a younger workforce

 Optimizing operations

 Identifying and mitigating potential problems

 Reducing waste

 Trimming costs

 Increasing profits

What is IoT?

IoT, which stands for the Internet of Things, refers to the seven billion+ physical devices—“things”—that are connected to the internet. IoT encompasses all physical objects that can be connected to the internet to communicate and control information, including smartphones, computers, and applications. Experts believe that the number of IoT devices will spike to 41.6 billion by 2025.

Kevin Ashton, a British technology wizard and cofounder of Auto-ID Center, coined the term “Internet of Things” in 1999. However, it took more than a decade for technology to catch up to his vision. Cloud computing platforms, machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), and network protocols have all made IoT now possible.

Organizations that harness the power of IoT will benefit in many ways, such as:

 Increased efficiency and agility

 Optimized operation management

 Cost efficiency

 Better customer service and retention

 Improved use of assets and resources

 Reduced human labor

What is IIoT?

IIoT is an acronym for the Industrial Internet of Things. IIoT is the industrial-sector subset of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is a vast network of intelligent computers, devices, applications, and smartphones that are all connected to the internet. The Industrial Internet of Things allows organizations to enhance the reliability and efficiency of their processes and is inclusive of medical devices, robotics, and software-defined production processes.

IIoT puts a strong emphasis on machine-to-machine (m2m) communications, meaning connecting automation devices including actuators, sensors, and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to the internet and each other.

Industrial organizations and enterprises can benefit from IIoT in a number of ways, including:

 Improved risk identification

 Better process optimization

 Enhanced connectivity

 Business scalability

 Cost savings

 Waste reduction

 Overall equipment effectiveness

What is MQTT Protocol?

MQTT, or MQ Telemetry Transport, protocol is the de-jure standard for the Internet of Things (IoT) messaging. Regulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and OASIS, MQTT protocol offers a secure, efficient, and scalable method of connecting constrained devices with low bandwidth over the internet.

MQTT is a publish and subscribe system, meaning that devices publish messages on a particular topic and all devices subscribed to that topic will receive communications.

What is an Operational Performance Evaluation?

An operational performance evaluation or review is a productivity procedure that assesses the efficiency a company has throughout its operational processes. The end goal is to eliminate wasteful practices and improve overall efficiencies to increase production and profit with on-budget, on-time, high-quality outputs.

At every stage of operations, processes can be improved and streamlined.

What is Data Analytics?

Many organizations collect large amounts of data in raw form. However, raw data doesn’t provide much insight. Data analytics is the science of analyzing this raw data to extract actionable and valuable information, which can drive better business outcomes.

The process of data analysis includes drawing out, organizing, and analyzing raw data and then converting it into intelligent information. After interpreting the data, organizations can determine the appropriate next steps to take based on the conclusions of the information.

Data analysis can help businesses accurately identify patterns, such as customer behaviors, bottlenecks in production, and overall equipment effectiveness.

There are four types of data analytics, including:

Descriptive analytics: Shows what has occurred over a given period of time.

Diagnostic analytics: Hones in on why something happened.

Predictive analytics: Forecasts what is likely going to happen in the near term.

Prescriptive analytics: Determines a course of action.

The most common data analytics techniques used to extract information are:

Cohort analysis: Buckets data sets into similar groups.

Factor analysis: Breaks large data sets into smaller sets.

Monte Carlos simulations: Shows the likelihood of different outcomes happening and is often used for risk mitigation.

Regression analysis: Analyzes the relationship between dependent variables to see how a change in one can impact a change in another.

In addition to statistical and mathematical processes, data analysts can leverage data mining and raw programming language software to efficiently analyze raw data.

Data analytics benefits businesses because it can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and help with risk identification.

What is a Histogram?

Similar to bar charts, histograms are visual interpretations of numerical data that show the number of data points that fall within a defined range of values, or “bins.” Unlike bar charts, however, histograms don’t have any gaps between the bars.

The anatomy of a histogram can be broken down into four main components, including:

1. Title: A brief description of the information included in a histogram.

2. X-axis: Intervals that display the scale of values that the measurements represent.

3. Y-axis: Shows the amount of times the values occurred within the intervals determined by the X-axis.

4. Bars: The height of the bars shows how many times the values happened within the interval, while the bars’ width displays the interval that was covered.

Histograms come in eight different shapes, including:

Normal distribution: A bell-shaped curve where points on one side of the average are just as likely to occur as on the other side.

Skewed distribution: An asymmetrical shape caused by natural limitations that prevent outcomes on one side of the average.

Bimodal or double-peaked: Resembles the back of a two-humped camel and combines the outcomes of two different processes with varying distributions into one set of data.

Multimodal distribution or plateau: Displays numerous peaks close together, causing the top of the distribution to look like a plateau.

Edge peak: Resembles a normal distribution but has a huge peak at one tail.

Comb distribution: Has alternating tall and short bars.

Heart-cut distribution or truncated: Looks like a normal distribution with the tails lopped off.

Dog food distribution: A distribution that is missing results near the average.

Businesses can use histograms for:

Numerical data

To see the shape of data distribution

Examining what a supplier’s process output looks like

Seeing if a process change happened for business process improvement

Determining if a process meets a customer’s expectations

What is Predictive Analytics?

Predictive analytics is the process of using both historical and current data to make projections about what could happen in the future. This process can be used to improve efficiency and mitigate risks.

Predictive analytics draws on multiple techniques to make these forecasts, including data mining, machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), and modeling.

Organizations can leverage predictive models to forecast sales, create effective marketing strategies, and enhance operations strategies.

Three standard practices used in predictive analytics include:

Decision trees: This model buckets data according to particular variables, such as market capitalization or price. As the name implies, the model resembles a tree with individual leaves and branches.

Neutral networks: This form of predictive analytics mimics how the human brain works and employs AI to manage complex data relationships.

Regression: This predictive model is mostly used for statistical analysis to determine patterns in huge sets of data.

What is Root Cause Analysis?

Root cause analysis (RCA) is a process for identifying any underlying causes of an issue and implementing solutions that treat the problem at the root level, or the core cause of the incident. These root causes can include physical, human, or organizational errors. This helps businesses look beyond the symptoms of the issue and focus on where the real cause lives.

RCA is essential for streamlining production processes, improving efficiency, and creating more effective strategies to overcome potential problems.

The history of root cause analysis can be traced back to the field of Total Quality Management (TQM), which is a managerial approach to long-term business success via customer satisfaction.

While RCA is not a one-size-fits-all methodology, the principles can be divided into five key categories, including:

1. Failure-based RCA

2. Production-based RCA

3. Process-based RCA

4. Safety-based RCA

5. Systems-based RCA

When conducting a root cause analysis, an organization should ask itself three simple questions:

What is the problem?

Why did it happen?

What can be done to fix it?

What is MQTT?

MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) is a messaging protocol that establishes a definitive standard for machine-to-machine (m2m) communications in low-bandwidth environments. The protocol was created in 1999 by Andy Stanford of IBM and Arlen Nipper of Eurotech to connect oil pipeline telemetry systems via satellite.

Despite initially being used as a proprietary protocol to communicate with supervisory and data acquisition systems by oil and gas companies, MQTT is now widely used in other arenas, including manufacturing, automotive, and telecommunications. MQTT has also become popular in the small device sector, and is the leading open-source protocol for connecting the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. This is because MQTT mitigates potential IoT issues, ensuring data is efficiently sent to and from multiple devices on a
network.

MQTT uses a publish/subscribe communication pattern, meaning that rather than communicating with a client server, applications and devices publish and subscribe to topics overseen by a third party.

MQTT offers numerous benefits to clients, including bi- directional communications, reliable message deliveries, increased efficiency, and security-enabling features.